Key Stage 4
Pupils will tackle complex and demanding physical activities. They will get involved in a range of activities that develops personal fitness and promotes an active, healthy lifestyle.
Pupils should be taught to:
• Use and develop a variety of tactics and strategies to overcome opponents in team and individual games (for example, badminton, basketball, cricket, football, hockey, netball, rounder’s, rugby and tennis)
• Develop their technique and improve their performance in other competitive sports, (for example, athletics and gymnastics), or other physical activities (for example, dance) take part in further outdoor and adventurous activities in a range of environments which present intellectual and physical challenges and which encourage pupils to work in a team, building on trust and developing skills to solve problems, either individually or as a group evaluate their performances compared to previous ones and demonstrate improvement across a range of physical activities to achieve their personal best.
• Continue to take part regularly in competitive sports and activities outside school through community links or sports clubs.
Guildford County school delivers this through our sport education model.
What is Sport Education?
Sport Education is a curriculum and instruction model designed for delivery in physical education. It is intended to provide our boys and girls with more authentic and enjoyable sport experiences than what we typically see in the usual physical education classes. Students participate as members of teams in seasons that are longer than the usual physical education unit. They take an active role in their own sport experience by serving in varied and realistic roles that we see in sport settings such as captains, coaches, trainers, statisticians, and officials.
The three major goals that guide program development in Sport Education are for students to become competent, literate, and enthusiastic players (Siedentop, 1994). This means that teachers must design learning experiences that facilitate students learning what this means and what it would look like in realistic settings. According to Siedentop (1994);
• A competent player has sufficient skills to participate satisfactorily, can execute strategies that are appropriate for the complexity of the game being played, and is a knowledgeable player.
• A literate player understands and values the rules, rituals, and traditions of sport, and is able to distinguish between good and bad sport practices in a variety of sport settings.
• An enthusiastic player is one who preserves, protects, and enhances the sport culture through participation, involvement, and appropriate behaviour.
In order to achieve these goals, students need to develop a set of objectives which Siedentop (1994) has identified.
1. Develop skills and fitness specific to particular sports.
2. Appreciate and be able to execute strategic play in sports.
3. Participate at a level appropriate to their stage of development.
4. Share in the planning and administration of sport experiences.
5. Provide responsible leadership.
6. Work effectively within a group towards common goals.
7. Appreciate the rituals and conventions that give particular sports their unique meanings.
8. Develop the capacity to make reasoned decisions about sport issues.
9. Develop and apply knowledge about umpiring, refereeing, and training.
10. Decide voluntarily to become involved in after-school sport.
Seasons & Formal Competition
In the sport education model sports are played in “seasons” rather than units. Using the term season makes the physical education experience more true to being part of an authentic sport season. Just as in authentic sport games are played throughout the season with a concluding culminating event.
Most students will get involved in sports because they want to play. Usually the first question students have when coming to physical education is, “Do we get to play today?” The idea of games throughout a season is appealing to students because it offers frequent opportunities to play. In a sport education season students participate as a team in skill practice and games; all building team unity. This game form allows teams to practice specific skills while being involved in team play at the same time.
Seasons with the sport education model are usually longer than the typical physical education unit. Longer seasons allow students to feel more affiliated with their teams, better experts in the sport, and more skilled players. For most sports the ending culminating event is a tournament.
A major part of the sport education model is the idea of students becoming members of a team which can change throughout the year. At the beginning of a sport season students are put in to teams with which they both practice and compete for the duration of the season. This close time spent together creates team pride and spirit. Team aspects of sport that are part of the sport education model add to this feeling of pride and the festivity that sport holds. There are many different ways in which team affiliation can be built during a season. The following are a few ideas of things that can be incorporated to give students a sense of belonging while building team spirit and affiliation:
• Team names
• Team uniforms
• Individual team warm-ups; team practice courts
• Team awards
In all sports numerous records are kept throughout the season. Records of both individual and team performance are kept in order to provide feedback to players and add to the tradition of sport. This same aspect of sport is transferred in to the physical education setting through the sport education model. Records provide feedback for students and teams and encourage goal setting for improvement. The roles and responsibilities that are set up through the model allow for easy opportunities to incorporate the keeping of records during practice and games of individual and team performance. For instance, statistics can be taken by a team’s statistician and can even be taught by the statistician to the rest of his or her teammates. Records, such as the statistician’s statistics, could also be used by a coach to design a practice specifically addressing a team’s needs.